The value of all medical technology is difficult to overestimate, but especially important has always been and will be to improve diagnostic techniques. After all, it depends on the timely recognition accuracy of diagnosis and prescribed treatment is correct. Thus, the qualitative diagnosis without exaggeration determines the success of the recovery. And that blood often gives the most complete picture that allows the physician to collect reliable history. After receiving the results, the specialist will determine the state of health of the patient and diagnosis. But the patient at a long list of "encrypted" data is often frightened because of the inability to understand their own information contained therein. Do not panic, trust a professional. But if you absolutely can not wait to decipher their own blood - we'll show you how to do it.
Blood test - one of the most common medical tests. It allows a sufficiently early stage to determine such serious functional disorders in the bo
In many cases the blood is awarded if other tests were not satisfactory . Then the blood is checked to determine the true causes fever , permanent weakness , sudden dizziness or loss of consciousness.
How is a blood test
Blood test - one of the most common tests today, holding debugged and which does not require lengthy preparation.
In particular, a blood test is recommended to take in the morning and on an empty stomach. Moreover, depending on the purpose of diagnosis, and varies the time interval between blood sampling and the previous meal. Thus, for a general blood analysis is not enough for 3 hours for hormonal tests - 4-5 hours, and for determining cholesterol have previously fasting at least 12 hours. You can drink pure water, but juice, tea or coffee. Of course, no alcohol! Smoking and taking medication before taking the blood is also prohibited. And in any case, planning a blood test on the eve of the survey give up fried, fatty, smoked excessively sharp and savory dishes. This precaution ensures the accuracy of the research results and save you from the risk of re-testing.
A study of the blood - the process is so complicated and capricious , it is better not to donate blood after the procedure , which may affect its components . These processes are primarily massage, physiotherapy and reflexology, X-ray, ultrasound , and even significant physical activity . And the women of the blood generally varies depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle , which makes it possible to survey for hormones , not every day.
Blood analysis is taken from a vein in his left hand or finger in the capillary . The skin in this place , of course, must be clean and dry. Its alcohol wipe and pierce with a sterile scalpel or a special disposable needle. All this happens very quickly , and usually gives almost no pain . After taking the necessary amount of blood is applied to the puncture site and densely press a piece of cotton to stop the bleeding .
Immediately after blood collection get a chance to relax and sit quietly for a few minutes . With the weakness and dizziness better lie down. Do not drive , do not lift the weight and cancel athletic training . Usually , the body quickly transferred to cope with stress , especially since the blood loss at delivery for analysis insignificant.
Deciphering a blood test
Complete blood count - a complex multi-stage study, which includes biochemical, immunological, hormonal and serological analysis.
- The level of hemoglobin
- The number of red blood cells
- Platelet count
- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
- The ratio of the volume of red blood cells and blood plasma (hematocrit)
- Number of leukocytes
- The content of lymphocytes
- Some other parameters of interest to the physician in specific cases
- Hemoglobin( designated in the certificate HGB or Hb, normal levels - 120 - 140 g / l ) - blood protein , by which the internal organs are supplied with oxygen. Its excess , like the lack of said abuse of concentration of red blood cells ( and are lower ) . In addition, the increase in hemoglobin level in excess of the normal signals of dehydration , excessive exercise , blood clots , lower - about anemia .
- The number of red blood cells(Abbreviated RBC, ie «red blood cell count», the number of red blood cells and normally is about 4.3-6.2 x 10 12 degrees / l). If your performance is "through the roof" above the level position, then we can talk about the risk of thrombosis, ie adhesion of red blood cells to clot and blockage of the lumen of blood vessels. Reducing the number of red blood cells - a blood loss or anemia is the same, that is, oxygen starvation of tissues and organs. Generally, it is contained in erythrocytes above protein hemoglobin, i.e. transport oxygen from the lungs to all other organ systems carried by these blood components.
- Platelet count(Abbreviated PLT -, ie aplatelets- plate, the normal rate of 180 - 320 × 109 / L) - the number of blood "plates" directly involved in the formation of a blood clot. The right amount of these elements stops blood loss for any damage to the vessel walls, from the extensive injuries to minor scratches. It increases blood diseases, inflammations, after removal of the spleen. Reducing the number of platelets indicates malfunction of the bone marrow, boosting the immune system, cirrhosis of the liver, is fraught with the deterioration of blood clotting.
- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate( Erythrocyte sedimentation rate , ESR; up to 10 or up to 15 mm / hr for men or for women , respectively ) - dependent blood viscosity , quantity and quality of protein in it. Rarely falls because of " worsening " specific and actual weight of red blood cells , and increased as a result of inflammation, malignancies , infections , anemia. This acceleration of erythrocyte sedimentation may report and the start of pregnancy.
- Hematocrit(HCT, the normal state of 39 - 49 % and 35 - 45 % for men and women respectively) . The indicator of the relative amount of red blood cells in the blood mass . For example , if the blood of men consists of red blood cells greater than 49 % , it may indicate dehydration or other cause excess erythrocytes. Less than 35 % of red blood cells on the contrary, is " thinning " the blood and the consequent anemia.
- White blood cells( whitebloodcellcountili WBC, normally about 4,0 - 9,0 × 10 9 degrees / l). White blood cells , which determine resistance to viruses , bacteria and other foreign aggression . Erythrocytes in an amount inferior , but far superior in their size. The number of white blood cells may decrease under the influence of medication , and increases the body during a fight with a bacterial infection .
- Lymphocytes(LYMili percentage of blood LY%; should be about LYM # 1,2 - 3,0h109 / l, LY% 25-40%). The variety of white blood cells, white blood cells similar to the confrontation of the body responsible for bacterial and viral infections. It is determined by two variants of indicators. The first number of lymphocytes in the blood represented in terms of absolute numbers, and shows how the lymphocytes were found in the analysis. Otherwise lymphocytes can be estimated in the form of percentage, that is to calculate the percentage of lymphocytes from the total number of leukocytes. In both cases, the increased number of lymphocytes recognized during infection and helps diagnose viral hepatitis, influenza, rubella, toxoplasmosis, etc. Chronic and severe disease such as AIDS, and renal failure caused reduction in the number of lymphocytes in the blood. Similarly, the overwhelming influence of the production of lymphocytes possess corticosteroids and other drugs that suppress the immune system.
- Color index(CPU), which is analyzed in general and individual cases, blood tests, defined its parameters such as the average volume of a red blood cell (MCV, 80 - 100 femtolitrov) and the width of distribution (RDWc, 11,5 - 14,5%). Frequently calculated hemoglobin: its average content (MCH, 26 - 34 picograms) and average concentration (MCHC, 30 - 370 g / l). These figures reveal the lack of oxygen, that is insufficient exchange of substances between the respiratory and circulatory system. Some tests allow to determine the status of a few cells like blood basophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and their presence so called "precursors» (MID, 0,2-0,8 x 109 / l and MXD% 5 - 10%). Indeed, these elements are also leukocytes i.e. changing their number and / or percentage, anyway, explain the decline in protective properties of the organism. For example, monocytes was the first "taking a hit" in an attack by viruses, and it depends on them the quality and speed of the immune response.
Note that to interpret the results of analysis on their own, and the more willfully appoint a treatment - is strictly forbidden. By and large, all the data obtained as a result of the diagnosis should not be exposed to no one's hands but the hands of a qualified physician. But if they took possession of the person concerned is, how is any patient or people close to him, do not forget that all the above information is provided only as general information for your reference. With their help, you can expand your horizons, but in any case it does not look practical application. Be sober, be vigilant and be healthy.