How inherited Rh?

Despite bytuyuschy stereotype that all people are equal initially, yet nature itself has given us all the distinctive features of individual. Therefore, we differ from each other tsvetotip, physique, temperament ... But if the hair color and even the shape can be changed at will, ie classification, according to which you are under no circumstances will not be able to change the "environment" and move on to a different category. These are the four blood types and only two versions of the Rh factor. These settings are not innate to alter during the life of their own and they are given once and for all. Moreover, throughout life have a direct impact not only on you, but your children and grandchildren. Therefore, they should be treated with the utmost seriousness. Especially to the Rh factor, because its importance almost equal importance to all the other characteristics of blood in the aggregate. And they, in turn, are a direct reflection of the genetic code of each person, that is, in fact, his life, health

, appearance, longevity, etc. Thus, it becomes clear that for posterity as one of the most important stages and objectives of the body, the Rh factor influences greatly. But how?

 
There are other assessment and blood analysis systems, and their number increases regularly. But they are interesting mostly professionals (researchers, biochemists, physicians, geneticists), but most of the people on them have never heard of, and do not need this information. But on the Rh factor known to all, both men and women. The former can open at any time to see your passport and stamp indicating the blood group and Rh factor, made in the military since the beginning of military age. The latter is required to face or have already faced with this concept once think about pregnancy and childbirth. The modern system of education introduces students to the concepts of blood group and Rh factor even in a base course of human anatomy. But what must be confessed, the school knowledge often perceived as something imposed and often seen carelessly, forgotten soon after passing tests and obtain an estimate on the relevant topic. And only with age and adulthood value of any information is revealed in a new light. Fortunately, today there are no problems with access to any information, and as such important knowledge about their own body as the blood group and its Rh factor, something about them you are willing to tell each doctor. We also offer refresher right now, not looking up from his computer screen.

What is the Rh factor.
Rh factor (short for Rhesus or simply Rh) - is one of the 29 in use today around the world blood group systems. For example, the system AB0 (or first, second, third and fourth blood group) is the most common characteristic to assess a person's blood, and the Rh factor is considered to be the second most important clinical system. Unlike blood groups, which are allocated to four, the Rh factor is characterized by only two options. He is either positive (Rh +), or negative (Rh-) - that is determined, respectively, the presence or absence on the surface of red blood cells of a particular protein antigen (or, in scientific language, lipoprotein). Generally, such antigen has more than 40, and each of them denotes a private code consisting of numbers, letters and / or other symbols. But determining the Rhesus antigens play a crucial role of so-called type D and to a lesser extent types C, E and e. Their presence or absence and conversely determines Rh status. We know that the vast majority of the world's population, or more precisely 85% of Europeans and 99% of Asians literally have a positive Rh factor, that is, on the surface of their red blood cells have a protein called. And 15% of people, with half of them, that is as much as 7% - is born in Africa, do not have the monkey, that is their Rh negative. But even the "Rh positive" people can have different Rh status.

The fact is that, as with the combination of chromosomes, which affects the formation of the sex of the baby, the Rh factor is also inherited from the parents. Each of them, in turn, also has the data obtained from the parents. Thus, if both parents have Rh blood was dominant, the child will receive Rh Rh +, ie, a positive Rh factor. Rh factor Rr, that is inherited from one parent with a dominant and one recessive monkeys will also be dominant, but behave differently when combined with other genomes in the future. And only if both parents have Rh-negative, the child can be also only Rh-negative: rr. Although Rh both grandparents also necessarily affect. Too complicated? Let's look at an example. Let's say that the father of the unborn child has a positive Rh, and my mother - negative. But there is a grandmother with a negative Rh. So we have these inputs: the father and mother Rr rr. The child in this case may be born with Rh factor both Rr, and rr with probability 50/50. If both parents have a positive Rh factor, but both grandfathers have Rh-negative status, the children will receive the same number of and dominant R, r and recessive genes. And can get the Rh factor of any of the options: RR (Rh +), Rr (Rh +), rr (Rh-). But note that the probability of a positive Rh factor will still be three times higher than the probability of a negative against 75% vs. 25% probability. In the office of the gynecologist-obstetrician can see clear table where at the intersection of different indicators Rh factors listed options parents Rh factor of the child. The same visual information easy to find on the Internet, in an accessible way to find out your chances of an heir to the positive or negative Rh status.

How inherited Rh?At the same time, and these tables, and even a blood test for the Rh factor will give the opportunity to know only one fact: the positive or Rh-negative blood in the holder. More accurate data, that is, the presence of dominant and recessive traits in generations, we can find out only by deeper studies conducted exclusively in special clinics and / or the Institute of Genetics. You can certainly try to use the logic of "bottom up" and the children calculate the type Rh status, but it is unlikely someone will be engaged in such laborious calculations. Enough to know that the owners of the Rh negative status under any circumstances can not be held in its genome positive and Rh, respectively, to pass it to their offspring. Positive Rh always tends to dominate and as a result has a positive Rh status. And in general, genetics knows only three circumstances inheritance Rh status:
  1. Both parents with Rh-negative can only give birth to a child with the same as theirs, Rh-negative.
  2. One parent with a positive , and the second - with Rh-negative have a chance as Rh positive or Rh - negative offspring , the baby rhesus positive status will be born with a probability of six of the eight cases , while the child without a rhesus antigen - only two of the eight cases .
  3. Two Rh - positive parents with probability 9 of 16 will give life to the Rh-positive children rhesus completely dominant , with a probability of 6 out of 16 - Rh positive children with the makings of a recessive and dominant traits , and only in one case out of 16, their child will have a negative Rh -Status .
From all this we can conclude that the Rh factor is not completely solid argument in the debate, for example, about the true paternity of the child. Simply because even a positive Rh status of the father can not guarantee that a child will have the same status. Even if it was his child. Just like a mother and father with positive Rh factor can easily be born Rh-negative child, which was showed recessive trait grandmother or great-grandmother. And even one pair of parents in one family may well be children with different Rh status. The only thing that can never happen - this is the birth of a child with a rhesus positive have Rh-negative parents. Mathematical rule 'minus by minus gives plus "in this case is not working. By the way, blood group and Rh factor inherited completely without any relation to each other.

In total there are 9 options inherit the Rh factor, and you and your children as well as parents, belong to one of them.
  1. The mother has Rh-positive factor - Rh (DD)

    The father has Rh-positive factor - Rh (DD)

    100% of children will have Rh-positive blood factor - Rh (DD)
  2. The mother has Rh-positive factor - Rh (Dd)

    The father has Rh-positive factor - Rh (DD)

    50% of their children will have a positive Rh factor - Rh (DD),

    50% of their children will have a positive Rh factor - Rh (Dd).
  3. The mother has Rh-negative - Rh- (dd)

    The father has Rh-positive factor factor - Rh (DD)

    100% of their children will have a positive Rh factor - Rh (Dd).
  4. The mother has Rh-positive factor - Rh (DD)

    The father has Rh-positive factor - Rh (Dd)

    50% of their children will have a positive Rh factor - Rh (DD),

    50% of their children will have a positive Rh factor - Rh (Dd).
  5. The mother has Rh-positive factor - Rh (Dd)

    The father has Rh-positive factor - Rh (Dd)

    25% of their children will be Rh-positive factor - Rh (DD),

    50% of their children will be Rh-positive factor - Rh (Dd),

    25% of their children will have to have Rh-negative factor - Rh- (dd).
  6. The mother has Rh-negative factor - Rh- (dd)

    The father has Rh-positive factor - Rh (Dd)

    50% of their children will be Rh-positive factor - Rh (Dd),

    50% of their children will be Rh-negative factor - Rh- (dd).
  7. The mother has Rh-positive factor - Rh (DD)

    The father has Rh-negative factor - Rh- (dd)

    100% of their children will have a positive Rh factor - Rh (Dd).
  8. The mother has Rh-positive factor - Rh (Dd)

    The father has Rh-negative factor - Rh- (dd)

    50% of their children will be Rh-positive factor - Rh (Dd),

    50% of their children will be Rh-negative factor - Rh- (dd).
  9. The mother has Rh-negative factor - Rh- (dd)

    The father has Rh-negative factor - Rh- (dd)

    100% of their children have Rh-negative factor Rh- (dd).
For convenience, all of the data in the table.

How inherited Rh?

If you look closely at a table , you can draw attention to an additional factor in the form of symbols DD, Dd , and dd. This abbreviation for the most significant gene that can be either dominant (D), or recessive (d). The genotype of a person with a positive Rh factor can be either homozygous DD, or heterozygous Dd. The genotype of a person with Rh-negative can correspond to only homozygote dd.

Why go into all these complications? Why do we know and take into account the Rh factor, and their relatives? When and why this information can be useful? Firstly, a combination of dominant and recessive traits and the resulting heterozygous organism conserved genes and can influence the formation of many generations. Second, genetic characteristics, including Rh do not exist by themselves, and are inseparably connected with the physiological and anatomical features of the fetus, child, and then an adult. The color of hair and eyes the future baby teeth shape and a tendency to early baldness, the presence of musical abilities and the likelihood of ambidexterity genetics have learned to identify long before the man born. But if these signs are more a question of curiosity, the parents, the value of early identification of genetic and / or inherited diseases and other abnormalities can not be overemphasized. Dominant and recessive traits, including the Rh factor, determined even during fetal development. And to know the Rh status of the couple planned to become parents is necessary because of the existence of the phenomenon of Rhesus-conflict. Its probability is determined before the start of a planned pregnancy in order to avoid major problems during gestation.

What is Rh-conflict.
How inherited Rh?Rhesus conflict - it is the incompatibility between the blood of mother and child on the Rh factor. You may ask how this is possible, because the child - is the fruit of the mother's body and the result of crossing its genes with the genes of the father ?! That is precisely why there is a discrepancy, when Rh positive baby, inherited from my father, "meets" with Rh-negative mother. There is a paradoxical at first sight, and quite logical when judiciously analyzing the situation. Just remember, as it was stated at the outset that a positive Rh factor - it is nothing like the presence of a certain protein in the blood. The body of a pregnant woman with Rh-negative "do not know" about the existence of such a protein, it does not have its own and has never faced him. Therefore, if it enters the Rh positive blood of the fetus in the mother's body, he sees this protein as something alien and potentially dangerous for themselves. And if so, it begins to produce antibodies against fetal red blood cells bearing the antigen protein that is responsible for the Rh factor. Of course, the blood of mother and fetus do not mix directly. But their bodies inevitably share the products of metabolism, some cells and substances through the permeable wall of the placenta. In a similar way antibodies against the protein in the blood of a child with Rh factor positive are sent to it from the mother. This protective mechanism, biologically verified and deeply "programmed" in man, can not be stopped, and the longer the conflict Rh factor, that is, in fact, organisms of mother and fetus, the greater the amount of antibodies hostile to the fetus. It bears a direct threat to the health of the baby, so doctors are always trying to find out in advance what the Rh factor in each of the prospective parents.

Red blood cells of the fetus, the mother's body being attacked by antibodies, die and turn into decomposition products, toxic and poisonous blood cells, organ systems, and most importantly - the brain of the embryo. One of the most concentrated substance - bilirubin - gives the skin a yellowish baby. From this came the term neonatal jaundice, which is actually a hemolytic disease (ie, disease fracture) newborns. It should be understood that destroyed certainly not babies, and their blood cells. However, the damage from this is still considerable. In addition to the brain, liver and spleen are affected child, then other internal organs and systems. Fortunately, modern medicine has reached a sufficient level of development to counter these dangers. The first suspected the possibility of rhesus becomes pregnant woman under the watchful supervision of experts and in case of detection of Rh antibodies, special efforts to smooth the blood incompatibility of mother and fetus. Subject to timely diagnosis and disciplined performance directed by a physician favorable resolution of Rh conflict is more than likely. To this end, women with Rh-negative for antibodies in the blood is checked starting at 8 weeks of gestation: at this time it appears the fetus Rh factor. If necessary, the drug is injected into the body containing Rh immunoglobulin. In other words, the Rh factor, though inherited recessive-dominant type and can not be changed, but with the right approach and sufficient information is absolutely no danger to health - not your or your loved ones. Therefore, know your body, love yourself and be healthy!