now not uncommon presence of a digital camera in the house.But recently it was not only rare, one might even say exotic, but also luxury.But everything flows, everything changes and the spread of digital technology, prices began to fall, and availability, of course, on the contrary, increase.So you become the proud owner of a brand new, or at least not entirely new, camera.And now, after the purchase, it is not a question of choosing the right type or brand.Now it will have on how to learn how to take pictures.A function can be very much, but for the most part there is only one - the shutter release.Automation of course, a good thing and a very convenient, becauseit is not necessary to think about the values ​​of exposures, diaphragms, distances, etc.But, nevertheless, the automatic mode can not satisfy all the needs in the shooting.
Now everything in order.Let's start with a brief theory.

Fundamentals photos

Imaging since the foundation of photos Dugger so nothing has changed - still as light passes thr
ough the lens, which consists of a set of lenses.But unlike photographic film image is projected onto the CCD (Charge Coupled Device), and then read out, processed and stored on digital media.But is not the case (that we, in general, are not interested in this case).The lens aperture is set to the drive mechanism and is the zoom.Exposure is carried out by changing the speed of reading from the CCD.In addition, there is a multi-point (in the advanced models), or single-point (simple) light meter, which determines the amount of light objects and intended to set so-called exposure, as well as to adjust the pulse width built-in flash.There is also a sensor AF (except for "Soap").
On the basis of the testimony given by the exposure meter.Of course, many "Soap" it's simple - given only the aperture and the shutter speed is set firmly (usually 1/60 sec.).But more devices all much more complicated.There's the same exposure can be achieved with different combinations of shutter speed and aperture.For example, a 60 / 5.6 equivalent to 50 / 6.3.You may ask, what do these numbers mean?The first number - it was specified delay.In this example, 60 and 50 - is 1/60 sec.and 1/50 sec.The greater the value, the faster the shutter speed (the shutter is released quickly, it turns out that 60 But how will this affect the result?

proceed to practice

If you are using fully automatic mode (usually the icon "camera"), the systemwill automatically adjust all the parameters, including exposure, loyal only to her mind. Automation is trying to choose a sufficiently long exposure (usually 60), but without bending the same time, to say the shaking device or moving objects in the frame. The shaking occurs when exposuresLong 60. This aperture is closed as much as possible to increase the depth of field - it simplifies the process of focusing. But this approach is not always justified, or rather, you can not always get what you want in the picture. Then come to the aid selection of different exposure modes. But opjatStill, if you have a "soap box", that is likely to restrict only have a choice of modes such as "Sport", "Portrait", "Landscape", etc. These modes also not be neglected, but require a chic outcome in this case,meaningless.
With a choice of these modes all clear MirSovetov offers learn to use more advanced.And they can assume only three: aperture priority, shutter priority and fully manual setting.We talk about them.

Aperture Priority (A)

On most vehicles marked with the letter "A» - Aperture (aperture).In this mode, you manually set the aperture value, and automatic, given the lighting, sets it under restraint, ieAutomatic can no longer change the aperture value you selected.And why is it necessary?This is done in cases where it is necessary to obtain a particular depth of field.And then you need to give back a little theory.
depth of field reveals that within a certain distance (for example, from 5 to 10 m), all items will be in the field, despite the focus of the lens on a particular object (for example, at a distance of 7 m).And the stronger iris, the more depth of field.It should also be noted that this value depends on the lens focal length (zoom position of the so-called zoom) the longer the focal length, the shallower the depth of field.The meaning of all this
Kotovasiya is as follows.If you need to share plans (front, middle and far) and distinguish among them some object, MirSovetov advises to choose a smaller aperture value.
If you need to share plans ( front, middle and far ) and distinguish among them some object , then choose a smaller aperture
Increasing this value zone where everything is in the field, will be expanded.And when maximum aperture is in almost all the field, especially with a small focal distance.
At maximum aperture will field almost everything , especially in a small focal length
This is done in order to position the eyes of the one who would look photos on the desired object.Man instinctively sees first only sharp details, vague unnoticed.This is very effective when you want to separate the desired object from the background.Basically, this effect is used for portraits becausethe basis of a photograph - the people.
By the way, the author is a supporter of this particular regime.

Shutter Priority (S)

Represented by the letter «S» - Shutter (Shutter).Here the user sets the shutter speed is tough, and Automatic selects the aperture.There
achieved different effects if the item (s) in the scene move.If you want to "grab" a moment to picture the object was static and clear, MirSovetov recommends choosing a shorter shutter speed.
If you want to " grab " a moment to picture the object was static and clear , choose a shorter shutter speed
In practice, this "250" and shorter (depending on what speed of movement).But it happens, and so that must be shown in the picture is a moving object, not frozen forever.Then set the shutter speed should be genuine, such as "60" and longer.Then the moving parts are lubricated, indicating that the dynamics of movement.
If you want to show in a picture it is a moving object , not frozen forever , set the shutter speed of authenticity, such as "60" and longer
should be noted that when choosing shutter "30" and long, is already affecting the shaking of the camera in his hands - hold firmly but without clenching or use a tripod.
You can do a simple experience.Set in this mode, the long exposure (it typically denoted «NR») to values ​​say "3" (1/3 sec.) Or of steeper 1 sec.Aim the lens at the included chandelier, floor lamp or the likelighting fixture.When the shutter drive, circular or other voluntary movements, the camera so that the chandelier was in sight of the objective.You have come a mysterious abstraction.
Mysterious abstract with a chandelier
But the flash there is a nuance.The journal recommends to remember that for the synchronization of many outbreaks requires shorter exposure is not "90".If it is shorter, the normal lighting will have only a very narrow area where drew "gate."But it's not for all devices, for design speed and flash different.Try on her.
Still need to keep in mind that it is necessary to choose the correct exposure, becauseselect Automatic exposure, but can not get rid of inflection reaching effect.For example, if you select the shutter speed is too long, it may be that everything will be blurred, and of no effect the movement of speech did not go.
If you select the shutter speed is too long , it may be that everything will be blurred , and of no effect the movement of speech did not go

Manual mode (M)

designated as "M» - Manual (Manual).
By the way, this mode is the longest-held cameras, is not come to the aid of electronics.
In this case, both shutter speed and aperture value you have set manually.Automation only help you verify the correctness of the level of exposure of the scale of the exposure as a line.In the middle of the zero mark (0) - normal exposure, left minus (-) - underexposure, to the right plus (+) - overexposure.There are devices that the level of exposure, in addition to the specified range is displayed as it is on the display itself, ie, the display darker or lighter.
Information - by mechanical camera this was impossible, and there was nothing to check the exposure, or "by eye" or the external exposure meter.
But why I need this when, apparently, the previous two is enough for all occasions?Then, to create an effect overnight day, or, conversely, the effect of the day at night.Here's a look how it looks.
In the first case record under strong light.
Shooting took place in bright light
second - almost in the dark.
Shooting took place virtually in the dark
This is achieved in one case, underexposure, and in another - overexposure.
There is one caveat.Mode "M" helps when automation was not able to offer his version of events.For example, when it is too dark or too bright.
However, in such cases, the major automation devices is also not useless.Many cell phones have the ability to adjust the exposure, ie,You can force the shoot is too bright or a fairly large scale.
But what determines the required automatic exposure ?!That's right!With built-in light meter.There are also various options.In general, for most suitable photometry multishablonnaya.In this case, the image is divided into multiple regions (slices), and photometry is performed for each region.This determines a well-balanced exposure without the occurrence of excessive contrast, iethe exposure is a compromise.
There is also a central photometry, ieWhen I stopped going on the subject in center of frame.By the way, this method begins the development of cameras with built-in exposure meter.And also meets and Spot metering.It is virtually the same as the center, but the area on which determines the exposure is very low (almost at the point) that allows you to determine the exposure for a specific subject.
essence of the last two methods lies in the fact that more correctly (without compromise) to determine the exposure at the desired object, while ignoring the background.It requires, for example, a portrait subject.Here's a look as multipoint photometry has not considered the difference between the brightness of the background and person.
Multipoint photometry has not considered the difference between the brightness of the background and the man
background turned out normal, and people in overexposure.Of course, this pretty thing spoiled flash that in manual mode does not regulate the luminous flux.But, nevertheless, the idea, I think, is clear.
In addition, there is such a method, when it is necessary to lock the exposure at a certain point, and then move the lens unit.This is required mainly when the last two selected metering mode, but necessary thing is not in the center of the frame.

Sensitivity (ISO)

There is one more important detail in the installation of the exhibition - the sensitivity of ISO.Let!You say, but the camera did not film!Yes, it is, but the measure of sensitivity left for convenience, becauseMany have used it to the system.
acceptable range here depends on the apparatus itself and not from the film but usually begins with ISO 100 units.and ends with a maximum of 3200 units.There is also a mode «AUTO».Then the unit, depending on the light, he put up the sensitivity.But he tries to choose this value as low as possible.For here, as in the film, the highest quality at the lowest sensitivity.So do not get carried away unnecessarily increase the number of ISO.An example will MirSovetov two images - the first with ISO 160, the second with ISO 3200. The two frames are made with the same illumination.
Frame made with ISO 160
A frame made with a ISO 3200

Flash

No, maybe I do a little bit cheated.There is another factor influencing the exposure - the flash.Here we'll consider briefly only full-time, ie,board "frog".Although, sorry.A bar of soap is not a "frog" - she jumps.In this outbreak, there are a number of modes, which however, depends on the mode of the device.Typically, a complete list of "services" to provide flash only when the camera is set to «AUTO».
So, what modes are:
- Automatic.The flash is activated (or not activated) automatically depending on the need.And in this case is governed by the length of its momentum, depending on the achieved illumination (works only in the system - "AUTO").This is convenient, saves battery power system, but not always useable.Example - shooting against the light;
Shooting against the light
- Fill-in flash (available in any mode).Fires in any case, regardless of the lighting conditions.The pulse duration is not regulated, ieFlash uses its guide number completely.Suitable for most shooting conditions, but consumes more energy;
Forced flash
- Slow sync.When this shutter speed is set to a longer value.The standard shutter speed when using the flash - 1/90 sec, ie"90".This is done in order to work out the background, because the flash before him, as a rule, "not to pursue";
For all the above mentioned regime is a red-eye reduction.In this case, before the main flash follows a series of short bursts without shutter.This is done to ensure that pupils have people who are in the dark, narrowed and fundus did not reflect red light.It makes sense to use only when photographing people, otherwise it's a waste of time and energy before firing the shutter.
- without a flash.This is the mode when the flash will not be used anyway.This is done in order not to take pictures with flash, where it is forbidden, and for some of the effects that require natural lighting.The picture becomes more natural.Also in the advanced devices "opens" some features, such as expanding "range" values ​​in the selection of white balance.
It must be remembered that the use of standard flash makes the display of objects of people's faces in the picture plane.At the very least, you should try to take pictures of a little angle, appeared to shade.But at high angles appear too big contrast.
And for flash.Avoid common mistakes: when you hold the camera - do not cover the flash with a hand.
What other useful features provided by modern machines?

Zoom

This device allows you to change the focal length of the lens without the use of interchangeable lenses.Thus it seems that one or the other thing are getting closer, or, conversely, further away from you, even though you do not move.
Zoom -
... Or, conversely, further away from you, even though you do not move
And, in fact, it is very convenient.When a lens with a fixed focal length you need to move closer or farther away, it is not always possible and it takes time, and the picture is known to the art of catching the moment.On transfokusnyh lenses do not require enough to turn the zoom ring or press the appropriate button.
If you move toward the «W» (Wide - wide), the field of view of the lens will extend.Such a lens is called a short-or wide.With this you will get in addition ample opportunities for installation depth of field (because in this mode, the maximum aperture), plus a good separation plans.Iein this case extends the prospect.But there distortion (aberration) - objects acquire a barrel shape.
At a certain value, the lens is mounted on a normal focal length.This usually occurs when it is "break in two."The fact that the lens, when moving from the «W» to «T» first leaves, and then comes out again.That's the point "bend" is normal focal length.Here the prospect is displayed without distortion (only structural distortion lenses themselves).
If you set aside the "T» (Tele - long), the angle of view narrows and the lens will be called telephoto lenses (with a very large value are called telephoto lenses).Here, aperture ratio is minimum, which leads to poor choice of aperture, therefore the depth of field.At telephoto aperture already extremely scarce and already have problems with focusing.This is due to the fact that a lot of light is lost in the lens.Hard and focus.But that's not all - increases the effect of shaking the machine.Again, a telephoto lens will be able to withdraw only from a tripod.The prospect in this case narrows plans badly divided (the image is flat), and the objects take on a saddle (biconcave) shape.
thus only normal lens gives an image without perspective distortion.